The Research Triangle: From Tobacco Road to Global Prominence (Metropolitan Portraits)

The Research Triangle: From Tobacco Road to Global Prominence by William M. Rohe (Paperback, 2012)
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The Beach Builders

Bliss hired Beatrix Ferrand to create the masterful 10 acre formal gardens around the house. In the clinical case, the diagnostics mentioned, the complementary assessments and care proposed are very varied. Wilson's gift to the American people are furnishings, portraits, books, autographed photographs of personages identified with events in Wilson's administration, a Gobelin tapestry, commemorative china, and early furniture owned by the Bolling family of Virginia. Next City. Chemotherapy adversely affects the gut microbiome, and alters physiological and psychological function. Pilsen and its arts scene is an especially an exciting place to visit.

With the rise of affordable air travel, people started going to Florida and the Caribbean instead. The city desegregated. Disneyland opened. Legalized gambling was supposed to rescue the city from its obsolescence as a resort and convention town, a condition that came to national attention during the Democratic Convention there and grew more conspicuous as the decade wore on.

A dozen years later, the state passed the Casino Control Act, which was, at least ostensibly, an attempt to reverse the decline. Neglect of the city has been attributed to a bloated municipal payroll—a budget nearly double what it was ten years ago—and the years of corruption and mismanagement in city government. Some blame the suffocating effect of the casinos, which are boxed off from the city and are designed to keep patrons inside losing money rather than outside spending it. Others point to the thorny old problem of race or the dreary question of the structure of municipal government statewide.

The dividing line between south and north, and between white and black, used to be Atlantic Avenue, the main commercial street, which runs parallel to the sea. In the streets that run from the boardwalk, dilapidation and squalor are not hard to find. Wood, who is white his grandfather, a metallurgist, came to town from Lithuania at the end of the nineteenth century and used to scavenge for junk on the beach with a horse-drawn wagon , has noticed an uptick in the number of shopping bags from the outlet mall, a few blocks away.

In his opinion, the sixties were worse. They wound up with winos hanging around.

Episode 30, Research Triangle Park: The Silicon Valley of the South

People were scared to go to the supermarket. So it closed up. In order to prevent monopolies, the Casino Control Act stipulated that no one could own more than three casinos. In the eighties, Donald Trump became the first to hit that limit.

The Fight to Save Atlantic City | The New Yorker

Eventually, the provision was scrapped, and by Caesars owned four. Carl Icahn now effectively controls a quarter of the market with just two casinos, the Tropicana and the Taj Mahal. Does Atlantic City need more gambling, or less? There are proponents on both sides. Some favor alternative entertainments concerts, water parks, polo, legalized marijuana or the panacean potential of higher education Stockton University, a state college headquartered offshore, has long wanted an Atlantic City campus.

A few push for smaller boutique casinos, and others swear by the existing big-box regimen, just done better. In Las Vegas the ratio of revenue is two-thirds non-gaming to one-third gaming. In Atlantic City the situation is reversed. As that stream dries up, logic suggests tapping others. And yet the casinos remain lucrative.

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The city has a higher concentration of casinos than anywhere outside Nevada. It gets twenty-five million visitors a year. I asked Steve Perskie, who wrote the Casino Control Act as a state legislator representing Atlantic City, if casinos, in the final accounting, had been good for the town. When word gets out that a city is on the skids, people seem eager to imagine post-apocalyptic desolation, a rusting ruin at Ozymandian remove from the glory days.

They keep sopping up tax dollars and risk capital, thwarting big ideas and emergency relief, chewing up opportunists and champions. Two weeks after the shuttering of Revel, Trump Plaza closed—the fourth casino to do so in Two competitors, Tropicana owned by Icahn and Caesars controlled by the private-equity firms Apollo Management and TPG Capital , bought out the bankrupt Atlantic Club, closed it, and divvied up the scraps. Next came the Showboat. It was profitable, but its owner, Caesars, hobbled by debt, needed to consolidate.

Donald Trump himself no longer runs the company or the casinos, and he has sued to have his name removed. In December, the Trump Taj Mahal was about to close; Icahn, having squeezed the state and the union for concessions on taxes and benefits, found twenty million dollars to keep it open, and since then it has limped along, a zombie casbah. Atlantic City has lost its monopoly on legalized gambling on the East Coast. First came the casinos on Indian reservations in Connecticut, in the nineties, and then, in recent years, the advance of gaming across state lines, in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and upstate New York. Some industry experts will tell you that Manhattan is destined to have tables, too. Perhaps they should hope instead that it does not.

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The casino closures in Atlantic City have contributed to the loss of nearly ten thousand jobs, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and who knows how many associated income streams, reputable or not. Property taxes in the city have doubled since and were up twenty-nine per cent in , to make up for the drop in tax revenue from the casinos and in the taxable value of the property.

The city is around four hundred million dollars in debt. Earlier this year, its credit rating was downgraded to junk-bond status. Perhaps mercifully, the mayor, Don Guardian, was relieved of some of the hardest decisions, about who and how many to fire and what services to deprive the citizens of. Presiding over the first bankruptcy for a New Jersey municipality since the Great Depression would not help his Presidential ambitions, and, perhaps more important, it would raise the already high costs of borrowing across a state whose finances are very grim.

In May, the city submitted a plan to lay off two hundred city workers, about a fifth of the municipal workforce. Orr returned to private practice, having been paid seventy thousand dollars for three months of part-time work. Abandonment, and the spectre of bankruptcy, intensified the bleakness of the winter in Atlantic City. At one end of the boardwalk, Revel loomed dark. At night, the blare of piped-in pop warped in the wind, and floodlight spilled out over the dunes, which, post-Sandy, were just a layer of sand atop an armature of giant sandbags.

The Transatlantic Slave Trade

Visitors regularly stopped to photograph this, to add to their portfolio of what some locals, resenting the attention, considered ruin porn. One morning, I met Dawn Inglin, who had gone to work as a cocktail waitress at the Plaza when it first opened, in She remembers a weigh-in, and an interview in a bathing suit, and she and the others were required to wear two-and-a-half-inch heels. When I met her, she had her hair up and was wearing a smart lavender suit.

Things started closing. Restaurants, room service. For four or five years, there were constant rumors that this or that person was going to buy us. The last few years were so stressful. You watched people lose their jobs. They were taking away severance, the machines disappearing, equipment rolling past you. It ended last September. We were frantic.

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Despite coming up empty in a search for another job, Inglin felt that she was going to be all right. Since the Plaza closed, she has been attending classes at the community college in pursuit of a degree in human services—a growth field in these parts. He had been at Academy for fifteen years and was No.

As ridership has fallen, Academy has been cutting back on its schedule. The number of visitors arriving by bus is an eighth of what it was a quarter century ago. In the spring, Brown, just forty-seven, retired. Now he was looking for work as a livery driver. Because of the rise in property taxes, the value of the house is well below the value of the mortgage, so he is stuck with it. Atlantic City has had three great bosses, political or otherwise.

In the decades prior to the First World War, Louis Kuehnle, a transplanted New Yorker and powerful Republican known to all as the Commodore, turned the resort into a bustling metropolis and the state party into a patron and beneficiary of the evolving local aptitude for vice.

The third was Hap Farley, a Republican legislator and master puller of wires, whose political swan song was his support, behind the scenes, for the second and successful attempt, in , to pass the state bill to legalize gambling in Atlantic City. Since then, there have been party bosses, governors, and mayors with varying degrees of power and venality, but no kingfish of the stature of the Commodore, Nucky, or Hap.

In city politics, the Democrats held sway. The electorate is now thirty per cent Hispanic and forty per cent black; Democrats outnumber Republicans nine to one.


Langford, out of the public eye since then, has been writing a memoir and working as a substitute teacher. Langford Lane. He had on a Champion sweatshirt, jeans, and Nikes. His grandfather had come to town in the twenties, bought some trucks, and won trash-removal contracts at the big hotels. Langford went to college, then dealer school at the Casino Career Institute, on the Black Horse Pike, one of the old Atlantic City arteries, and started at Caesars when it opened, in He spent fourteen years in the industry—as a floor supervisor at the Playboy and a pit boss at the Atlantis and the Taj Mahal.

In , he ran for city council. His successor, Guardian, is sixty-two and from North Jersey. He is a former Boy Scouts of America executive. He was a keen advocate and errand man for the tourist precincts, the guy out on the boardwalk on his bicycle at dawn, picking up the plastic cups.